EMFSTx™ – Electro-magnetic Field Sensor Technology
The Electro-magnetic Field Sensor Technology (ESFSTx) is very easy to apply to a range of applications. A wide range of electro-conductive objects such as wire, fences, cables, water, cars, etc, can be connected to the sensor unit that registers the electro-conductive objects electromagnetic signature that is related to the electrostatic field the electro-conductive objects are in. The programmable control unit (PCU) filters information from the sensors and sends pre-programed messages to a wide range of mass produced alarm systems. The system is tamper proof, and is used for security around strategic government facilities and equipment. The fact that the PCU can be connected to a wide range of low cost electro-conductive objects means it is a comparatively low cost security solution. The system is ideal for perimeter security, internal building security, access points to detect movement of weapons, etc.
The state of the art Electro-Magnetic Field Sensor Technology (EMFSTx) is based on detection of changes in the electrostatic field surrounding or within of a sensor using an analog microprocessor running algorithms based on a set of several second-order differential equations in partial derivatives, each element playing its own role on detectability, noise immunity, and sabotage resistance.
The system design and production of the analog microcomputer electronic circuit manufacture including charge amplifiers in particular, operating by Coulomb laws, i.e. “charge electronics”; validating the possibility of electronic components long-term operation, at least for 15 years as per actual data, without their characteristics changing due to the components pre ageing.
- Theory and procedure of electronic component parameters stabilization, especially that of charge amplifiers, under environmental conditions change (temperature, pressure, humidity);
- Theory and procedure of electronic components protection, i.e. parameters stabilization, especially that of charge amplifiers, under external electromagnetic, magnetic, and electrical fields change;
- Theory of passive guard alarms operation designed to detect a person movement, their operation based on detection of the external electrostatic field gradient change;
- Theory of passive metal detectors, i.e. weapons detectors operation, their operation based on detection of the Earth magnetic field gradient change.
- Mass-produced the most sensitive charges of electron (these are design values as there is no instrumentation for their measurement) and the most noise-immune (signal/noise› 1000 – checked with oscilloscope) charge amplifiers in the world.
14-year experience of leading specialists in using mass-produced highly sensitive charge amplifiers when investigating physics of:
- low-level electrical and charge signals;
- low electromagnetic, magnetic, and electrical fields;
- matter properties change, i.e. temperature, conductance, magnetic conductivity and permittivity under varying environmental conditions (temperature, pressure, humidity, electrical and magnetic fields, electromagnetic RF and microwave fields of low power, at the tens of mW level, light fluxes, etc.).
Results of Scientific Researches for the Last 14 Years
Development, manufacture, tests, certification, and putting into mass production:
- Three modifications and five models of the ESFSTx - type, passive guard alarms operating based on nine physical concepts such as detection of external electrostatic field gradient change, triboelectrification, detection of electrical and electromagnetic fields change, triboelectric, tensity-resistive, vibroelectric, and piezoelectric effects and combination of triboelectric and vibroelectric effects, of various purposes i.e. protection of perimeters, buildings and rooms outlines, buildings spaces, separate articles, in the presence of people as well.
- Two modifications and three models of the Fractal-01-type passive metal detectors, i.e. weapons detectors operating based on detection of the Earth magnetic field gradient change.
- Detection of ferromagnetic materials with magnetic conductivity.
- Two triboelectric guard systems – for perimeter areas. At present the matter of their certification is being considered with certification tests completed.
- Piezoelectric guard system for perimeter areas to be used as the second guard frontier, the first one and internal local zones being present. At present the matter of its certification is being considered.
Note. All the aforementioned articles are manufactured on the basis of a signal-processing unit (BOS) built around analog microcomputer and charge amplifier. The electronic circuit of the signal-processing unit operates by the “charge electronics” laws.
Basic Technical and Operational Characteristics of Signal-Processing Unit BOS-250P:
- supply voltage – 8 V to 35 V DC;
- current consumption, max – 1,5 mA (in fact – 1mA );
- minimum input current detection – 10-18 (design value);
- minimum input charge detection – 10 (ten elementary charges of electron – design value);
- signal-processing unit input resistance – 1 kOhm;
- charge amplifier input resistance – 1028 ohm (a bit less than design value);
- charge amplifier theoretical input current – 10-31 mA
- control potential of charge amplifier input integrated circuit = Rin * Iin = 10-3 V = 1 mV,
- that is 1,000 times as much as the circuit components self-noise;
- signal-to-noise ratio – more than 1,000;
- bandwidth – 0.1 to 1.2 Hz;
- peak frequency – 0.8 Hz;
- voltage gain at peak frequency – 60,000;
- survival temperature range – from minus 70 to + 60 (according to joint protocols of the enterprise and customer representatives);
- effect of shocker discharge (U = 85 kV as per certificate) – signal-processing unit survives (according to joint protocols of the enterprise and customer representatives);
- effect of microwave radiation up to 4 MW/m2 in power – signal-processing unit survives (as per test reports of Central Applied-Physics Institute, Moscow Region);
- effect of RF electromagnetic field up to 4 MW/m2 in power – signal-processing unit survives (as per test reports of Central Applied-Physics Institute, Moscow Region);
- effect of momentum neutron flux – signal-processing unit survives (as per test reports of Central Applied-Physics Institute, Moscow Region);
- service life – 10 years;
- warranty – 3 years for units with inspection department seal (1) and 8 years for ones with military inspection seal (5).
Several tens of doctoral and Ph D. theses can be defended based on the available data received as a result of 14-year scientific research in all the aforementioned fields, the following trends being to the point:
- theory of guard alarm input signal processing with analog microcomputer;
- theory and technique of electronic circuits design, charge amplifiers in particular,
- operating by the Coulomb laws, i.e. “charge electronics”;
- theory and procedure of electronic component parameters stabilization, especially that
- of charge amplifiers, under environmental conditions change;
- design technique and procedure of analog microcomputer electronic circuit manufacture;
- theory and procedure of electronic components protection under external
- electromagnetic, magnetic, and electrical fields change;
- operation theory of passive metal detectors detecting the Earth magnetic field gradient change;
The technical team can file for several tens of applications for invention rights, seven advance technologies being embodied in the design of the piezoelectric sensor diaphragm alone.
Nowadays manufactured are articles built around these signal-processing units and operating on physical concepts resulting in the electrical charge separation:
- ESFSTx–027P guard alarm is designed to protect room spaces and local zones (detection of external electrostatic field gradient change, triboelectrification, detection of electrical and electromagnetic fields change);
- ESFSTx–035P guard alarm is designed to protect any fences of perimeter areas (triboelectric effect, tensity resistive effect);
- ESFSTx–038P guard alarm is designed to protect any fences of perimeter areas against undermining (triboelectric and vibroelectric effects);
- ESFSTx–048P guard alarm is designed to protect building structures against mechanical damage (vibroelectric effect);
- ESFSTx–050P guard alarm is designed to protect separate articles of every type (piezoelectric effect with sensitivity of hundredths of micron);
- Fractal-01-type metal detectors, i.e. weapons detectors (detection of magnetic field gradient change at a level of ).
Besides developed on the base of our signal-processing units can be unique detection equipment operating on physical concepts resulting in the electrical charge separation or travel:
- pyroelectric effect (charge separation in pyroelectric crystals in the preset temperature threshold crossing);
- photoeffect (detection of illumination change at a level of 10 to 8 lx);
- detection of radioactive radiation change (parameters are not determined);
- detection of volatile matters fumes, explosives and drugs included;
- detection of temperature, pressure, humidity, etc. change;
- detection of absorption and radiant energy of atoms and molecules of various matters.
Today we have potentialities for further employment of our charge amplifiers in developing new products to guarantee personal security and material values safety.
To carry out work, minimally required instrumentation (power supply units, oscilloscopes, generators, frequency meters, etc.) is available.
The organizational structure of our enterprise ensures on-the-fly performance of scientific and production tasks, the earliest achievement of specific result being priority-driven. Established is a “school” of young specialists training in the field of ESFSTx scientific research and production. The region of our production branch location has considerable potentialities for scientific
brainpower selection as specialists of nearby enterprises of Serpukhov, Protvino, Pushchino, Obolensk, and Tarusa take first place in scientific researches in Russia in certain fields of science and engineering.